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CWD TRANSMITS TO MACAQUE INTAKE MUSCLE ORALLY
#1
Greetings again VA hunters et al,

i thought i should post this so everyone can make a sound decision of their own...kindest regards, terry

Notice to Members Regarding Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

Posted on: May 31st, 2017

To: MNA Members

From: Métis Nation of Alberta

Date: Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) was made aware of a recent Canadian research study examining the transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease. The initial results of the study indicate that macaque monkeys (genetically similar to humans) can be infected with Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) after eating deer that is infected with CWD. CWD is a prion disease, which are fatal, transmissible diseases characterized by abnormal proteins in the brain and nervous system. To date no research has shown that CWD can be passed on to humans, and no human cases of CWD have ever been identified. However, this new research indicates that it is a possibility. The Deputy Chief Medical Officer of Health has reached out to us to share with our Métis harvesters this important information.

For more information you can visit:

http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife/wild...fault.aspx

and

http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/disease_informa.../index.jsp.

What the Alberta Government knows:

CWD is present in southeastern Alberta, with the area slowly spreading westward over time (introduced into Alberta from Saskatchewan) – see map for more information at http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife/fish...s-2016.pdf
CWD circulates in deer populations, particularly mule deer; it has been found in about 4% of deer tested in 2016;

Elk can be infected in areas where CWD has been present in deer for a long period of time;

Moose can also be infected, but this would be fairly rare.

Necessary Precautions for Harvesters:

Hunters and others who handle carcasses follow basic handling precautions (available here http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife/fish...ct2009.pdf

All deer, moose and elk harvested from CWD mandatory submission wildlife management units (WMUs) be tested for CWD; and
A negative result (no CWD detected by the test) must be obtained before any part of an animal is eaten.

For more information, contact:
Amy Quintal
Métis Nation of Alberta
Métis Harvesting Liaison
Tel: (780) 455 – 2200
aquintal@metis.org

http://albertametis.com/2017/05/notice-m...sease-cwd/

FRIDAY, JUNE 02, 2017

Alberta Canada Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Surveillance Update: 2016/17 Final

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....sease.html

Chronic Wasting Disease: CFIA Research Summary

Embargoed until May 23, 2017

(OCR of a scanned original)

Research Findings

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a progressive, fatal disease of the nervous system of cervids including deer, elk, moose, and reindeer that is caused by abnormal proteins called prions. It is known as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Other TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans.

A limited number of experimental studies have demonstrated that non-human primates, specifically squirrel monkeys, are susceptible to CWD prions. An ongoing research study has now shown that CWD can also be transmitted to macaques, which are genetically closer to humans.

The study led by Dr. Stefanie Czub, a scientist at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and funded by the Alberta Prion Research institute has demonstrated that by orally administering material under experimental conditions from cervids (deer and elk) naturally infected with CWD, the disease can be transmitted to macaques.

in this project, which began in 2009, 18 macaques were exposed to CWD in a variety of ways: by injecting into the brain, through contact with skin, oral administration, and intravenously (into the bloodstream through veins). So far, results are available from 5 animals. At this point, two animals that were exposed to CWD by direct introduction into the brain, one that was administered infected brain material by oral administration and two that were given infected muscle by oral administration have become infected with CWD. The study is ongoing and testing continues in the remaining animals. The early results will be presented at PRlON 2017, the annual international conference on prion diseases, in Edinburgh, Scotland, May 23 to 26, 2017.

Potential impacts of the new finding

Since 2003 Canada has a policy that recommends that animals and materials known to be infected with prions be removed from the food chain and from health products. Although no direct evidence of CWD prion transmission to humans has ever been recorded, the policy advocates a precautionary approach to managing CWD and potential human exposure to prions. These initial findings do not change Health Canada’s Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) position on food and health products. A precautionary approach is still recommended to manage the potential risks of exposure to prions through food and health products. Measures are in place at federal, provincial and territorial levels to reduce human exposure to products potentially contaminated by CWD by preventing known infected animals from entering the marketplace.

While Federal and P/T government’s animal disease control policies continue to divert known CWD-infected animals away from entering the food and feed supply, research and development of sensitive detection methods including live-animal sampling techniques remain crucial for ensuring an accurate diagnosis. In addition, consistent federal, provincial and territorial communications of appropriate precautionary measures for hunters and indigenous communities are required.

Next Steps

The CFlA will continue to collaborate with national and international partners to develop and validate new diagnostic techniques. The CFlA will also continue to offer confirmatory testing services and reference laboratory expertise to provincial and territorial partners on demand.

Currently, CFlA laboratories are leading or collaborating on several research projects to understand the potential for CWD to infect humans. These projects use non‐human primates, genetically modified mice, and cell-free amplification approaches. Given the present findings, CFiA encourages continued research into TSEs.

The results of this study reinforce the need to redesign the federal program to foster greater adoption of risk mitigation measures for farmed cervids. Federal and provincial government collaboration will continue as new program options are assessed.

The results of Dr. Czub’s research into CWD will be of interest to scientists, governments, industry and people who consume cervid products. After the presentation at PRION 2017, the research will follow the normal steps of completion, peer review and publication. The Government of Canada will monitor the response to this research and determine whether further review of the science is required. Other studies underway by other researchers may also become public as a result of the presentation of Dr. Czub’s research.

The Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, CFlA and other Federal partners are working together to assess what policies or programs need further review as well as preparing other communications about the research and health policy and advice to Canadian. 2017/04/28

===end...UNOFFICIAL...NO URL LINK...TSS===

0:30 First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

Dr Stefanie Czub University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency Canada

http://prion2017.org/programme/

WEDNESDAY, MAY 03, 2017

*** First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....l-and.html

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

PRION2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO UPDATE 23 – 26 May 2017 Edinburgh UPDATE 1

Subject: PRION2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO UPDATE 23 – 26 May 2017 Edinburgh

*see archives of previous Prion Conferences, the ones that are still available, scroll down towards bottom in this link.

http://prionprp.blogspot.com/2017/05/pri...23-26.html

WEDNESDAY, MAY 31, 2017

Texas New Exotic CWD Susceptible Species Rules Now in Effect

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....tible.html

WEDNESDAY, MAY 03, 2017

*** First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....l-and.html

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

PRION2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO UPDATE 23 – 26 May 2017 Edinburgh UPDATE 1

Subject: PRION2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO UPDATE 23 – 26 May 2017 Edinburgh

*see archives of previous Prion Conferences, the ones that are still available, scroll down towards bottom in this link.

http://prionprp.blogspot.com/2017/05/pri...23-26.html

WEDNESDAY, MAY 31, 2017

Texas New Exotic CWD Susceptible Species Rules Now in Effect

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....tible.html

WEDNESDAY, MAY 17, 2017

CWD, TSE, PRION, Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, and Humans aka Mad Cow Disease

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....p-and.html


Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
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#2
Am I really immature for giggling at the thread title?
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TUESDAY, JUNE 06, 2017

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION ZOONOSIS ZOONOTIC INSIDIOUS AND DIRE CONSEQUENCES AHEAD

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....prion.html
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Subject: PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD

P178 Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD

Dr Laura Pirisinu1, Dr Linh Tran2, Dr Gordon Mitchell3, Dr Aru Balachandran3, Dr Thierry Baron4, Dr Cristina Casalone5, Dr Michele Di Bari1, Dr Umberto Agrimi1. Dr Romolo Nonno1, Dr Sylvie Benestad2

1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy, 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway, 3Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National and OlE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Ottawa, Canada, 4Neurodeqenerative Diseases Unit, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, Lyon, France, 5Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Pietnonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Turin, Italy

Aims: In 2016, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) was detected for the first time in Europe in three wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and in two moose (Alces alces). The biochemical analysis and the immunohistochemical distribution of PrPSc from Norwegian reindeer revealed a pattern similar to North American (NA) isolates1. In this study, we studied the biochemical features of PrPSc from the two CWD cases in Norwegian moose.

Methods: Western blot (WB) analysis of PK-treated PrPSc (PrPres) from Norwegian moose and reindeer isolates was performed according to the ISS discriminatory WB protocol (used in BSE and scrapie Italian surveillance). PrPres fragments were determined by epitope mapping (SAF84, L42, 9A2, 12B2 mAbs), before and after deglycosylation. CWD isolates from Canadian cervids (wapiti, moose and white tailed deer) and a panel of small ruminant and bovine prion strains circulating in Europe were also analysed.

Results: WB analysis with different mAbs showed that PrPres from both Norwegian moose samples was different from that usually associated with CWD in cervids. Indeed, their main C-terminal fragment had a MW lower than the other CWD isolates, and could be discriminated by the absence of the 12B2 epitope. Furthermore, while NA CWD PrPSc is composed of a single PrPres fragment, Norwegian moose samples had an additional C-terminal PrPres fragment of ~13 kDa (CTF13).
Among ovine TSEs, classical scrapie and Nor98 were discriminated from both Norwegian moose isolates, while CH1641 samples had molecular features partially overlapping with the moose, i.e. a low MW PrPres and the presence of CTF13. In contrast, moose PrPSc did not overlap with any bovine PrPSc. Indeed, the MW of moose PrPres was lower than H-BSE and similar to C-BSE and L-BSE PrPres, but the two bovine prions lacked additional PrPres fragments.

Conclusions: Unexpectedly, PrPSc from Norwegian moose revealed features substantially different from all other CWD isolates. The PrPSc pattern of Norwegian moose was also different from Canadian moose, suggesting that the variant PrPSc type observed does not simply reflect a host factor and could represent a new CWD strain. Furthermore, PrPSc of Norwegian moose can be easily discriminated from all BSE types, classical scrapie and Nor98, while showing significant overlapping only with CH1641.
Bioassay in voles will help to clarify whether the different PrPSc types observed reflect the presence of a new CWD strain in Norwegian moose, and its relationships with known animal TSEs.

References: 1Benestad et al, Vet Res (2016}47:88

PRION 2017 DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

please see;

***Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle.

In the US, scrapie is reported primarily in sheep homozygous for 136A/171Q (AAQQ) and the disease phenotype is similar to that seen with experimental strain CH1641.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publica...115=182469

***Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle.

P-088 Transmission of experimental CH1641-like scrapie to bovine PrP overexpression mice

Kohtaro Miyazawa1, Kentaro Masujin1, Hiroyuki Okada1, Yuichi Matsuura1, Takashi Yokoyama2

1Influenza and Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO, Japan; 2Department of Planning and General Administration, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO

Introduction: Scrapie is a prion disease in sheep and goats. CH1641-lke scrapie is characterized by a lower molecular mass of the unglycosylated form of abnormal prion protein (PrpSc) compared to that of classical scrapie. It is worthy of attention because of the biochemical similarities of the Prpsc from CH1641-like and BSE affected sheep. We have reported that experimental CH1641-like scrapie is transmissible to bovine PrP overexpression (TgBoPrP) mice (Yokoyama et al. 2010). We report here the further details of this transmission study and compare the biological and biochemical properties to those of classical scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice.

Methods: The details of sheep brain homogenates used in this study are described in our previous report (Yokoyama et al. 2010). TgBoPrP mice were intracerebrally inoculated with a 10% brain homogenate of each scrapie strain. The brains of mice were subjected to histopathological and biochemical analyses.

Results: Prpsc banding pattern of CH1641-like scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice was similar to that of classical scrapie affected mice. Mean survival period of CH1641-like scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice was 170 days at the 3rd passage and it was significantly shorter than that of classical scrapie affected mice (439 days). Lesion profiles and Prpsc distributions in the brains also differed between CH1641-like and classical scrapie affected mice.

Conclusion: We succeeded in stable transmission of CH1641-like scrapie to TgBoPrP mice. Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle.

snip...


In the US, scrapie is reported primarily in sheep homozygous for 136A/171Q (AAQQ) and the disease phenotype is similar to that seen with experimental strain CH1641.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publica...115=182469

snip...see ;

TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....ronic.html

P55 Susceptibility of human prion protein to in vitro conversion by chronic wasting disease prions

Dr Marcelo Barria1, Adriana Libori1, Dr Gordon Mitchell2, Dr Mark Head1
1National CJD Research & Surveillance Unit, Centre For Clinical Brain Sciences, The University Of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2National and OlE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Canada

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative conditions occurring in humans as sporadic, genetic and acquired forms. In animals, the majority of prion diseases are acquired. Some animal prion diseases, such as scrapie in sheep are generally considered to be of no or only very low risk to human health. In contrast, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a known zoonotic prion disease strain. The zoonotic status of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of cervids, remains poorly quantified. At present CWD has been recognised as a problem in both farmed and wild cervids species in USA, Canada, South Korea, and very recently has been recognised in reindeer in Europe.

Aim: The aim of this work is to determine whether CWD prions from elk, white tailed deer and caribou (reindeer) are able to convert the human prion protein to the disease-associated form.

Methods: We have used a cell-free seeded protein misfolding assay, protein misfolding cyclic amplification or PMCA, to test for conversion of the human prion protein by elk, white tailed deer and caribou (reindeer) PrPSc in a single round of amplification. Any misfolded human PrP protein (PrPres) is sensitively detected by Western blot using the 3F4 antibody.

Results: Amplification reactions seeded with Prnp codon 132 MM elk CWD brain in humanised 129 MM transgenic mouse brain substrate were able to produce human PrPres. However, the heterozygous (132 ML) elk seeds did not result in detectable conversion of the humanised 129 MM PrP substrate, even when similar quantities of PrPres were used to seed the reactions. Low levels of PrPres formation were detected when white tailed deer specimens were tested. The two caribou specimens were both capable of converting the humanised 129 MM PrP substrate efficiently and interestingly, the PRNP codon 129 MV and VV substrates were also readily susceptible to conversion by the caribou seeds.

Conclusions: We previously reported that elk CWD prions were able to convert human PrPC derived from different sources. Here, we expand on this observation analysing more elk specimens of two different genotypes and analysing the conversion potential of white-tailed deer CWD and caribou (reindeer), the latter which have been experimentally infected with white-tailed deer CWD. Our data confirms that CWD prions are able to convert the human PrPC, at least in vitro, and points to caribou and reindeer as a potential source of zoonotic risk.

snip...see;

FRIDAY, JUNE 16, 2017

P55 Susceptibility of human prion protein to in vitro conversion by chronic wasting disease prions

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....prion.html

Subject: PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1

University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen

This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009. 21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves.

Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice.

At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation.

PRION 2017 DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

WEDNESDAY, MAY 03, 2017

*** First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....l-and.html

MONDAY, JUNE 12, 2017

Rethinking Major grain organizations opposition to CFIA's control zone approach to Chronic Wasting CWD TSE Prion Mad Deer Type Disease 2017?

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....tions.html

TUESDAY, JUNE 20, 2017

Norway Confirms 6th Case of Skrantesjuke CWD TSE Prion Disease

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot....se-of.html


terry
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